Published Literature on Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT)
Find a carefully sourced list of published literature that shows the efficacy of shockwave therapy for a variety of conditions and patients.
Case study: Treating infraspinatus and supraspinatus trigger points and supraspinatus tendinopathy utilizing piezoelectric shockwave
Two individual case studies demonstrate piezoelectric shockwave treatment for the resolution of a supraspinatus tendinopathy and supraspinatus and infraspinatus myofascial trigger points (MTPs) via musculoskeletal ultrasound. This is the first documentation of improvement of both tendon and muscle fiber patterns in canine patients treated with piezoelectric shockwave. These cases validate the use of piezoelectric shockwave during the rehabilitation of common canine shoulder injuries.
Keywords: infraspinatus; musculoskeletal ultrasound; myofascial trigger points; piezoelectric shockwave; supraspinatus.
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy for shoulder lameness in dogs.
The purpose of this article was to describe the outcome of dogs with instability, calcifying, and inflammatory conditions of the shoulder treated with extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). Medical records for 15 dogs with lameness attributable to the shoulder that failed previous conservative management were retrospectively reviewed.
ESWT was delivered to those dogs q 3-4 wk for a total of three treatments. Short-term, in-hospital subjective lameness evaluation revealed resolution of lameness in three of nine dogs and improved lameness in six of nine dogs available for evaluation 3-4 wk following the final treatment. Long-term lameness score via telephone interview was either improved or normal in 7 of 11 dogs (64%).
ESWT may result in improved function based on subjective patient evaluation and did not have any negative side effects in dogs with lameness attributable to instability, calcifying, and inflammatory conditions of the shoulder.
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy and therapeutic exercise for supraspinatus and biceps tendinopathies in 29 dogs.
Supraspinatus tendinopathy (ST) and biceps tendinopathy (BT) are common causes of forelimb lameness in large-breed dogs and have historically been treated with conservative management or surgery. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) and therapeutic exercise (TE) are thought to be treatment options for these conditions.
The objectives of this study were to report the clinical presentations of dogs treated with ESWT for shoulder tendinopathies, to determine the association between shoulder lesion severity identified on ultrasonography or MRI and outcome, and to compare the outcomes of dogs treated with ESWT with and without TE.
Medical records of 29 dogs diagnosed with shoulder tendinopathies and treated with ESWT were reviewed, and 24 dogs were diagnosed with either unilateral BT or BT and ST. None were found to have unilateral ST. Five dogs were diagnosed with bilateral disease. Eighty-five per cent of dogs had good or excellent outcomes determined by owner assessment 11-220 weeks after therapy. Outcomes were found to be better as tendon lesion severity increased (P=0.0497), regardless if ESWT was performed with or without TE (P=0.92). ESWT should be considered a safe primary therapeutic option for canine shoulder tendinopathies. Larger controlled prospective studies are needed to adequately assess these findings. Keywords: Biceps tendinopathy; Extracorporeal shockwave therapy; Supraspinatus tendinopathy.
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy improves short-term limb use after canine tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.
View Full Study Here
Objective: To determine the influence of postoperative extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on hind limb use after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).
Study design: Randomized, prospective clinical trial. Animals: Sixteen client-owned dogs, 2 to 10 years old weighing 18 to 75 kg.
Methods: Dogs were randomly assigned to treatment cohorts, TPLO with ESWT (ESWT, n = 9) or TPLO without ESWT (control, n = 7). Treatment consisted of 1000 pulses at 0.15 mJ/mm2 immediately and 2 weeks after surgery. Subjective pain, stifle goniometry, stifle circumference, peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) were measured before surgery, prior to ESWT, and 2 and 8 weeks after surgery. Measures were compared between treatments at each time point and among time points for each treatment (P < .05). Results: The PVF (5.5 ± 1.0 N/kg, mean ± SD) and VI (0.67 ± 0.14 N-s/kg) of surgically treated limbs in the ESWT cohort were higher 8 weeks after surgery compared with preoperative (3.8 ± 1.1 N/kg, P < .0001 and 0.47 ± 0.21 N-s/kg, P = .0012, respectively) values. In the control cohort, PVF (2.9 ± 1.3 N/kg, P = .0001) and VI (0.33 ± 0.20 N-s/kg, P = .0003) 2 weeks after surgery and VI (0.42 ± 0.2 N-s/kg, P = .0012) 8 weeks after surgery were lower (4.59 ± 2.33 N/kg and 0.592 ± 0.35 N-s/kg, respectively) than before surgery. Other parameters did not differ between groups.
Conclusion: Weight bearing increased faster after TPLO in dogs treated with postoperative ESWT. Clinical significance: This study provides evidence to consider adjunct ESWT after TPLO.
High energy focused shock wave therapy accelerates bone healing. A blinded, prospective, randomized canine clinical trial.
Objectives: To evaluate the influence of shock wave therapy (SWT) on radiographic evidence of bone healing after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).
Methods: Healthy dogs between two to nine years of age that underwent TPLO were randomly assigned to receive either electro-hydraulic SWT (1,000 shocks) or sham treatment (SHAM). Treatment or SHAM was administered to the osteotomy site immediately postoperatively and two weeks postoperatively. Three blinded radiologists evaluated orthogonal radiographs performed eight weeks postoperatively with both a 5-point and a 10-point bone healing scale. Linear regression analysis was used to compare median healing scores between groups.
Results: Forty-two dogs (50 stifles) were included in the statistical analysis. No major complications were observed and all osteotomies healed uneventfully. The median healing scores were significantly higher at eight weeks postoperatively for the SWT group compared to the SHAM group for the 10-point (p <0.0002) and 5-point scoring systems (p <0.0001).
Clinical significance: Shock wave therapy applied immediately and two weeks postoperatively led to more advanced bone healing at the eight week time point in this study population. The results of this study support the use of electro-hydraulic SWT as a means of accelerating acute bone healing of canine osteotomies. Additional studies are needed to evaluate its use for acceleration of bone healing following fracture, or with delayed union.
Keywords: Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy; bone healing; canine cruciate disease; shock wave therapy.
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy raises mechanical nociceptive threshold in horses with thoracolumbar pain
Background: Although extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is a common treatment for horses with back pain, effects on mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) and multifidus muscle cross sectional area (CSA) in the spine are unknown. Objectives: To evaluate effects of ESWT on spinal MNT and multifidus muscle CSA in horses with thoracolumbar pain. Study design: Non-randomised trial. Methods: Thoracolumbar spines of 12 horses with thoracolumbar pain were radiographed to document existing pathology.
Each horse received three ESWT treatments, 2 weeks apart (days 0, 14, 28). Palpation scores were documented (days 0, 45 and 65). Ultrasonographic CSA of left and right multifidus muscles was recorded at T12, T14, T16, T18, L3 and L5 (days 0, 45 and 65). MNT was measured at the same spinal sites every 7 days (day 0-56). Results: Mechanical nociceptive threshold in 10/12 horses (83%) was greater at each time point compared with day 0 (P < 0.05). Mechanical nociceptive threshold increased at all time points at six sites in 2/12 (16%), at five sites in 3/12 (25%), at four sites in 4/12 (33%) and at one site in 1/12 (8%; P < 0.05). Mechanical nociceptive threshold average per cent increase from day 0 to 56 was 64% for the thoracic region (T12-T18) and 29% for the lumbar region (L3-L5). There was no statistical difference in MNT from day 35 to 56 (P = 0.25).
A bimodal analgesic trend was observed following ESWT. Degree of radiographic change was not associated with response to treatment. No significant change in multifidus muscle CSA was observed. Main limitations: Small study size and lack of control group. Conclusions: Three treatments of ESWT 2 weeks apart raised MNT over a 56-day period in horses with back pain, but did not influence change in CSA of the multifidus muscle. While ESWT appears justifiable for analgesia, physiotherapeutic techniques may be necessary in conjunction for concurrent muscle rehabilitation. Keywords: back pain; extracorporeal shockwave therapy; horse; mechanical nociceptive threshold; multifidus.
Inflammatory mediators are potential biomarkers for extracorporeal shockwave therapy in horses.
Background: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) can potentially mask painful injuries in equine athletes. Tests to detect whether a horse has received ESWT prior to competition are needed. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy is known to affect inflammatory mediators in other species, and if these mediators are altered in the horse, these could serve as biomarkers of ESWT. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that a single application of ESWT will alter the circulating protein concentrations of 10 inflammatory mediators in horse plasma.
Study design: Prospective repeated measures experimental study. Methods: Eleven healthy horses were administered a single dose of ESWT on the dorsal surface of proximal MCIII. Blood samples were collected at -168, -144, -120, -96, -72, -70, -68, -66, -48, -24, -6, -4, -2, 0 h before and 2, 4, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, 168, 336 and 504 h after ESWT. Plasma concentrations of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), soluble toll-like receptor 2 (sTLR2) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured to assess the effects of ESWT on these mediators.
Results: Baseline concentrations of inflammatory mediators did not change substantially during the week prior to ESWT. Plasma concentrations of five inflammatory factors changed following ESWT. IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly down-regulated (P<0.01), while TNF-α, IL-1RA and TLR2 were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01). The remaining cytokines were not significantly affected by ESWT. Main limitations: This study was performed in a small number of sedentary, healthy pasture-kept horses using a single dose of ESWT applied to a single location. Additional studies are necessary to determine the effect of ESWT on inflammatory mediators in athletic horses undergoing treatment for musculoskeletal injuries. Conclusions: Plasma concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6 and TLR2 were significantly affected by ESWT, and deserve further investigation as possible biomarkers of ESWT. Keywords: cytokines; extracorporeal shockwave therapy; horse; immunoassay; toll-like receptor.
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
View Full Study Here
Background: Osteoarthritis is the most common musculoskeletal disease. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy had shown an effect on osteoarthritis in both some animal experiments and clinical studies, but there was no systematic review to confirm the value of shockwave therapy in the treatment of all types of osteoarthritis and compare it with other traditional therapies (especially traditional Chinese medicine).
Method: PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANFANG database, and VIP database were searched up to December 10, 2019, to identify randomized controlled trials comparing shockwave therapy and other treatments for osteoarthritis. Visual analogue scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index were extracted and analyzed by RevMan and STATA software as outcomes of pain reduction and functional improvement. Adverse reactions were recorded to evaluate the safety of shockwave therapy.
Results: Shockwave therapy had significant improvement in both pain reduction and functional improvement compared with placebo, corticosteroid, hyaluronic acid, medication, and ultrasound (P < 0.05). In functional improvement, shockwave therapy showed statistical improvement compared with kinesiotherapy and moxibustion (P < 0.05) but not with acupotomy surgery (P = 0.24). A significant difference between shockwave therapy and platelet-rich plasma was observed in pain reduction (P < 0.05) but not in functional improvement (P = 0.89). Meanwhile, a statistical difference was found between shockwave therapy and fumigation in functional improvement (P < 0.05) but not in pain reduction (P = 0.26). Additionally, there was no statistically significant difference between shockwave therapy and manipulation in both pain reduction (P = 0.21) and functional improvement (P = 0.45). No serious adverse reaction occurred in all of studies.
Conclusions: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy could be recommended in the treatment of osteoarthritis as a noninvasive therapy with safety and effectiveness, but the grade of recommendations needs to be discussed in a further study.
Treating navicular syndrome in equine patients.
View Full Study Here
Navicular syndrome is a chronic, progressive condition affecting the navicular bone and bursa, deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT), and associated soft tissue structures composing the navicular apparatus. The treatment options for navicular syndrome are as varied as the proposed causes of the condition. The severity of clinical signs, intended use and workload of the horse, and owner compliance with therapy are important considerations in developing a treatment plan.
Nonsurgical treatment of navicular syndrome consists of rest, hoof balance and corrective trimming/shoeing, and medical therapy, including administration of systemic anti-inflammatories, hemorheologic medications, and intraarticular medications. While surgical therapy can include desmotomy of the collateral (suspensory) ligaments of the navicular bone, palmar digital neurectomy is more commonly performed when medical therapy is ineffective.
Recently, adjunct therapies, such as acupuncture and extracorporeal shock wave therapy, have also been used to treat horses with navicular syndrome. Because of the wide range of pathologic changes and the lack of a definitive cure associated with navicular syndrome, treatment is directed toward the individual horse, focusing on the management of clinical signs to alleviate stress and retard degenerative changes of the navicular bursal and navicular regions.
Histomorphologic evaluation of extracorporeal shock wave therapy of the fourth metatarsal bone and the origin of the suspensory ligament in horses without lameness.
Objective: To determine via histologic examination and scintigraphy the effect of focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on normal bone and the bone-ligament interface in horses.
Animals: 6 horses without lameness.
Procedure: Origins of the suspensory ligament at the metacarpus (35-mm probe depth) and fourth metatarsal bone (5-mm probe depth) were treated twice (days 0 and 16) with 2,000 shocks (energy flux density, 0.15 mJ/mm2). One forelimb and 1 hind limb were randomly treated, and the contralateral limbs served as nontreated controls. Bone scans were performed on days -1 (before ESWT), 3, 16, and 19. Histomorphologic studies of control and treated tissues were performed on day 30.
Results: ESWT significantly increased the number of osteoblasts but caused no damage to associated soft tissue structures and did not induce cortical microfractures. A significant correlation between osteoblast numbers and radiopharmaceutical uptake was noticed on lateral views of the hind limb on days 3 and 16 and on caudal views of the forelimb on day 3.
Conclusions and clinical relevance: Results suggested that ESWT has the potential to increase osteoblast numbers in horses. The correlation between increased osteoblast numbers and radio-pharmaceutical uptake 3 days and 16 days after the first ESWT suggested that stimulation of osteogenesis occurred soon after ESWT. No damage to bone or the bone-ligament interface should occur at the settings used in this study, and ESWT can therefore be administered safely in horses.
The effects of extracorporeal shock-wave therapy on the ultrasonographic and histologic appearance of collagenase-induced equine forelimb suspensory ligament desmitis
Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) may stimulate healing of desmitis in multiple species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic and histologic appearance of collagenase-induced suspensory ligament (SUL) desmitis in untreated ligaments and ligaments treated with ESWT in horses.
Four mature horses had SUL desmitis induced in both forelimbs. Beginning 3 weeks after induction of the lesions, one ligament per horse was treated 3 times at 3-week intervals with ESWT. The percent lesion, echogenicity and fiber alignment scores of the SULs were evaluated at 3-week intervals for a total of 15 weeks. At the completion of the study, the horses were euthanized and the SULs collected, fixed and processed for histopathologic evaluation.
Ultrasonography showed treated SULs had a smaller percent lesion at the maximal injury zone (p = 0.001), and the total percent lesion (p = 0.01), total fiber alignment score (p = 0.0167) and total echogenicity (p = 0.0023) were all smaller in the treated ligaments. The fiber alignment score and echogenicity were not statistically different at the maximal injury zone. The treated SULs had a more concentrated area of metachromasia associated with healing than the untreated ligaments, where metachromasia appeared more diffuse throughout the ligament. ESWT improved the rate of healing as assessed ultrasonographically.
Prospective randomized comparison of platelet-rich plasma to extracorporeal shockwave therapy for the treatment of proximal suspensory pain in western performance horses.
Proximal suspensory desmitis (PSD) is a frequent cause of lameness in the performance horse. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (EST) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) have become common treatments for PSD yet clinical data on efficacy is limited. The main objective of this randomized, prospective clinical study was to compare long-term effectiveness of EST and PRP in Western performance horses. One hundred horses with lameness localized to the proximal suspensory ligament received treatment with either PRP or EST following baseline ultrasonographic evaluation. A veterinarian and agent evaluated the horses for lameness independently four days following the first treatment and long-term follow up was obtained from the agent at six and twelve months. Four days post treatment, horses treated with EST had significantly greater lameness improvement compared to PRP.
At one-year horses with less severe baseline ultrasound changes (grades 0-1) appeared to respond better (degree of lameness) with EST treatment whereas horses with more severe ultrasound changes (grade 2) responded better to PRP. Horses with baseline lameness graded 1 or 2 were 5.1 times more likely to be back in work at 1 year compared to those presenting with grade 3 or 4. EST treatment was associated with going back to work 3.8 times more at one year compared to PRP independent of baseline ultrasound score. Both PRP and EST can be expected to yield favorable therapeutic responses in Western performance horses with lameness localized to the proximal suspensory region. Baseline ultrasound may guide treatment selection. Keywords: Autologous conditioned plasma; Extracorporeal shockwave therapy; Platelet-rich plasma; Proximal suspensory desmitis; Western performance horse.
The Short Term Effects of Shock-Wave Therapy for Tennis Elbow: a Clinical Trial Study
Background: Tennis elbow is one of the most often diagnosed pathology of the upper extremity and different treatments have been suggested for this disease, so this study was to investigate the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in Tennis elbow treatment.
Materials and methods: We design a before and after clinical trial study (registry number: IRCT2012072610405N1) and investigated 40 patients with tennis elbow disease. All patients received 2000 pulses extracorporeal shock wave by piezoelectric device (WOLF Company) daily for one-week. The severity of pain was the primary outcome and measured with visual analogue scale (VAS). Secondary outcome was the ability to perform daily activities using questionnaire's quick DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand). Primary and secondary outcomes at baseline, 30 and 60 days after intervention were measured.
Results: The mean age of patients was 43.80±8.97 years and 28 patients (70%) were female. The mean duration of disease was 6.5 ± 7.9 month. The mean score of VAS pain score reduced from 7.25±1.54cm (median=7cm) before treatment to 2.76±2.08cm (median=2cm) at 60 days after the end of treatment (P<0.001). The Quick Dash score reduced significantly from 25.20±5.31 (median=25) before treatment to 8.69±8.32 (median=6) at 60 days after the treatment (P<0.001).
Conclusion: For newly diagnosed patients with tennis elbow, extracorporeal shock wave therapy can reduce the severity of pain and improve daily activity.
Keywords: Tennis elbow; daily activity; extracorporeal shock wave; pain.View Full Study Here
Focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy combined with supervised eccentric training for supraspinatus calcific tendinopathy
Background: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is effective in reducing shoulder pain and improving function in calcific supraspinatus tendinopathy. Eccentric exercise has been introduced as an effective treatment choice for Achilles tendinopathy, but poor evidence exists about its role in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy.
Aim: To investigate if adding a supervised eccentric training of the shoulder abductor muscles could improve the outcome of ESWT.
Design: Pre-post intervention pilot study with matched control-group.
Setting: Outpatient, University Hospital.
Population: Twenty-two subjects affected by painful supraspinatus calcific tendinopathy.
Methods: The study-group was assigned to receive focal ESWT (f-ESWT) plus a supervised eccentric training (SET) of the shoulder abductor muscles. The matched control-group received f-ESWT only. The post-treatment assessment at follow-up (T1) was performed nine weeks after the enrollment (T0). We assessed shoulder pain and function by the means of a numeric rating scale (p-NRS) and a DASH scale. As secondary outcome, we measured the isometric strength of the abductor muscles of the affected shoulder using a handheld dynamometer.
Results: At T1, we recorded a significant decrease in pain (P<0.001) and an improvement in upper limb function (P<0.001) in both groups. However, we observed no statistical differences in favor of the study-group, in terms of p-NRS and DASH total score. A mild increase (+13% from baseline) of the maximum isometric abduction strength was noticed in the study group at T1.
Conclusions: Our findings did not support the hypothesis that adding a supervised eccentric training of the shoulder abductor muscles could improve the outcome (pain and function) of shock wave therapy.
Clinical rehabilitation impact: Our study confirmed that f-ESWT is effective in reducing shoulder pain and improving function in calcific supraspinatus tendinopathy. Adding a supervised eccentric training, focused on the abductor muscles, was useful to improve maximum isometric abduction strength, but appeared to give no advantage in the short-term outcome of shock wave therapy.
Healing of Achilles tendon partial tear following focused shockwave: a case report and literature review
Achilles tendinopathy is a common cause of posterior heel pain and can progress to partial tendon tear without adequate treatment. Effects of traditional treatments vary, and many recent reports focus on the use of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) for Achilles tendinopathy but not for Achilles tendon partial tear. Here, we report the case of a 64-year-old female suffering from severe left heel pain for half a year. All treatment and rehabilitation were less effective until ESWT was applied. Each course of focused shockwave therapy included 2500 shots with energy flux density from 0.142 mJ/mm2 to 0.341 mJ/mm2. The visual analog scale decreased from nine to one degree. High-resolution musculoskeletal ultrasonography was performed before and 1 month after the treatment, which revealed healing of the torn region and decrease in inflammation. ESWT had shown to be an alternative treatment for Achilles tendon partial tear under safety procedure and ultrasound observation.
Keywords: Achilles tendon; focused shockwave; partial tear; ultrasonography.
Conflict of interest statement
Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.
The efficacy of shock wave therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis and popliteal cyamella
This randomized, controlled study was performed to compare the effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) and ultrasound on the rehabilitation of knee osteoarthritis with popliteal cyamella. One hundred and twenty patients with bilateral moderate knee osteoarthritis (Altman III) and popliteal cyamella were selected and randomly assigned to four groups (GI-GIV). Patients in Groups I-III received isokinetic muscular strengthening exercises three times weekly for 8 weeks. Group II received pulse ultrasound treatment for popliteal cyamella three times weekly for 8 weeks, Group III received weekly shock wave therapy for popliteal cyamella for the first 6 weeks, and Group IV acted as controls. The therapeutic effects were evaluated by changes in the arthritic knees range of motion (ROM), visual analogue scale, Lequesne's index, and muscle peak torques after treatment and at follow-up 6 months later. Each treated group exhibited increased muscle peak torques and significantly reduced pain and disability after treatment and at follow-ups. However, only patients in Groups II and III showed significant improvements in ROM after treatment, and only participants in Group III showed immediate improvement in ROM after each treatment. Patients in Group III also showed the greatest increase in muscular strength and the greatest decrease in disability after treatment and at the follow-ups. ESWT is better than pulse ultrasound in rehabilitation of patients with knee osteoarthritis and popliteal cyamella results in more functional improvements.
Keywords: Extracorporeal shock wave therapy; Osteoarthritis; Popliteal cyamella.View Full Study Here
Race-Approved Continuing Education
We are committed to providing support, encouragement, and high-quality education to help our customers to reach and expand their potential.